2012 nobel prize in medicine

Working with mice,.
It also opens a radically new way of studying the origin of disease: by creating tissue with disease, it can be experimented on in the laboratory, instead of in humans and animals.Gurdons technique was to extract the cell nucleus, containing the frogs DNA, from a mature intestinal cell and inject the nucleus into a frog egg whose own nucleus had been removed.Their work and discoveries range from cancer therapy and laser physics to developing proteins that can solve humankinds chemical problems.This is not only a giant leap for science, it is a giant leap for mankind.At the time, he and others were trying to reprogram cells by adding one gene at a time.The idea of inserting 24 genes all at once trombone related gifts is the kind of experiment that would have been laughed out of the room in a grant committee meeting, he said.At Oxford University, a more positive mentor encouraged him to try transplanting the nucleus of adult cells into frog eggs.Yamanakas discovery that 24 transcription factors, later whittled down to four, could reprogram a nucleus when introduced into cells on the back of a virus.Since the new tissue would carry the patients own genome, there should be no problem of immune rejection.Stem cells generated by this method, known as induced pluripotent cells, or wesley medical center gift shop iPS cells, could then be made to mature into any type of adult cell in the body, a finding with obvious potential for medical benefits.Gurdon showed that the genome of both egg and adult cells remained essentially unchanged.
Yamanaka has opened the door to a completely new kind of medicine: regenerative medicine.


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